Southwestern Expeditions

Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition
Los Muertos Excavation

Inventory No. 10-24:1-2
Accession No. 46-73
Date: 1887-1889
Contents: Albumen and color wash prints
Photographer: Frank Hamilton Cushing (1857-1900)
Collector: Hemenway Expedition

E. H. Husher Album

Inventory No. 10-19
Accession No. NA
Date: 1887-1889
Photographer: E. H. Husher, Taber Company
Collector: Alexander Agassiz (1835-1910)

Thomas V. Keam Collection

Inventory No. 10-11
Accession Nos. 43-39, 44-08, 44-09
Date: 1980-1982
Contents: Black and white negatives, color slides, and audio cassette
Photographer: NA
Collector: Thomas V. Keam (1846-1904) with assistance from Alexander M. Stephen (1850?-1894)

Related Collections:
Photographs: Inventory No. 10-81 is of James Wallace Black's (1825-1891) studio photographs of F. H. Cushing and a group of Zuni in Boston in 1882. Inventory No. 10-23 contains prints by Adam Clark Vroman (1856-1916), Benjamin Wittick (1845-1903), and Taber Company (1898-1902) of portraits, ceremonies, landscapes, and everyday life from various places including the Oraibi, Hopi, and Walpi Pueblos. Vroman's work is notable for its simple, unsentimental quality. Historic Print Collection: 975-67 includes images taken by Cushing and Vroman. The annotated prints were made between 1899 and 1902.
Artifacts: 90-25, 94-36, 95-30, 96-26, 04-29, 07-20, 08-30, 09-04, 12-74, 13-26, 14-27, 14-35, 17-17,17-17A, 19-13, 20-18, 21-09, 22-05, 25-28, 25- 47, 26-56, 27-03, 30-69, 31-08, 31-20, 32-14, 43-39, 43-39A, 44-08, 44-09, 44-10, 44-11, 44-12, 44-13, 44-35, 45-25, 45-25A, 46-73, 967-08, 969-08, 979-04.
Paper Archives: 94-36, 95-30, 13-26, 14-27, 17-17, 17-17A, 30-69, 32-14, 43-39, 43-39A, 44-08, 44-35, 45-25, 45-25A, 46-73, 969-08, 980-02.

Publication: Edwin L. Wade and Lea S. McChesney, Historic Hopi Ceramics. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, 1981.

The Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition (1886–1894)

The Hemenway Expedition brought thousands of artifacts to the museum from Arizona and New Mexico, the majority of which are associated with the history and lifeways of the Zuni and Hopi. Mary Hemenway sponsored the expedition out of an interest in Native American cultures.

The expedition was first led by Frank Hamilton Cushing. For five years prior to the appointment, Cushing had lived with the Zuni and studied their language and beliefs as a representative of the Smithsonian Institution. The crew excavated archaeological sites along the Gila and Salt Rivers in Arizona including an important Hohokam settlement at Los Muertos. One of the photographic collections contains images of dwellings and excavations at Los Muertos taken by Cushing. An album of albumen prints, representing the work of E. H. Husher of Taber Company, records scenes at the Zuni Pueblos and Hemenway Expedition excavations of 1887-1889. In 1890, prehistoric Zuni sites were excavated. Jesse Walter Fewkes (1850-1930) assumed the directorship and took the expedition to the Hopi pueblos in 1891, turning the focus to ethnographic research. Fewkes purchased a large collection from Thomas V. Keam, an adventurer and trading post operator in Northeastern Arizona. Over 4,500 objects in the collection range from prehistoric pottery, baskets, and textile fragments to nineteenth-century ceremonial art. A survey of the designs, stylistic development, and production techniques of historic Hopi pottery (A. D. 1540-1900) by Wade and McChesney, Historic Hopi Ceramics (1981), is based on the collection.

A. V. Kidder Reports on Mimbres Valley Sites in New Mexico

Inventory No. 10-48
Accession Nos. 25-11, 26-07, 27-11
Date: 1925-1927
Photographer: NA
Collector: A.V. Kidder (1885-1963)

Swarts Ruin, New Mexico

Inventory No. 10-77
Accession No. 24-15
Date: 1924

Related Collections:
Artifacts: 24-15, 25-11, 26-07, 27-11, 28-03, 29-20, 30-24, 33-11.
Paper Archives: 24-15, 25-11, 26-07, 27-11, 28-03, 29-20, 30-24.

Publications: Cosgrove, Harriet S. and C. Burton Cosgrove, The Swarts Ruin: A Typical Mimbres Site in Southwestern New Mexico. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 15, no. 1, 1932. C. B. Cosgrove, Caves of the Upper Gila and Hueco Areas in New Mexico and Texas. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 24, no. 2, 1947.

In 1919, C. Burton and Hattie S. Cosgrove bought land in Grant County, New Mexico, and began excavating ruins containing Classic Mimbres (A. D. 1000-1150) ceramics. The self-trained archaeologists spent meticulous care in recording their findings and so impressed A. V. Kidder of the Peabody Museum when he visited the site, that he invited them to manage a museum expedition to the Swarts Ruin. The excavation recovered nearly 10,000 artifacts including an extraordinary assemblage of Mimbres ceramics. The Cosgroves' work led to subsequent involvement in museum excavations at the Gila River (1928-1929), Chavez Cave, Nan Ranch, Doolittle Ranch, Pendleton Ruins at Cloverdale, and Hopi Pueblo at Awatovi (1935-1939). Kidder compiled three reports (1925, 1926, and 1928) illustrated with photographs of many of the artifacts as they were found at the New Mexico sites.

Upper Gila Expedition to Cerro Colorado, New Mexico

Inventory No. 10-15
Accession Nos. 53-38, 54-40
Date: 1953-1954
Photographers: J. Champ and W.W. Wasley
Collector: J. O. Brew (1906-1988)

Related Collections:
Photographs: Inventory No. 10- ? contains excavation photographs.
Artifacts: 47-55, 48-44, 49-59, 50-46, 51-44, 51-61, 53-38, 54-40.
Paper Archives: 47-55, 48-44, 49-59, 50-46, 51-61, 53-38. Also included in the paper archives are various photos of J. Nusbaum, A.V. Kidder, and Charles and Anne Morrow Lindbergh on expeditions from 1908-1952.

Publication: Charles Robert McGimsey III. Mariana Mesa: Seven Prehistoric Settlements in West Central New Mexico. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 72, 1980.

Following several earlier museum expeditions to the Upper Gila area, J. O. Brew led another team to Cerro Colorado, New Mexico, seeking to document the full cultural and chronological range of the site. Thousands of Basketmaker III and Pueblo II artifacts were recovered. Hundreds of field photographs describe the area.

Claflin-Emerson Expeditions to Northeastern Utah, 1928–1931

Inventory No. 10-55:1-2
Accession No. 990-7
Date: 1929-1937
Photographers: Dave Rust and various members of the expedition
Collector: J. O. Brew (1906–1988)

Related Collections:
Photographs: Inventory No. 10-70:1-11 consists of prints and negatives of the excavation and geographical surroundings taken while Donald C. Scott directed the Claflin-Emerson Expedition. Inventory No. 39 contains collotypes by Noel Morss of figures representing Pueblo, Basketmaker, Fremont, and Mogollon cultures of Northeastern Utah.
Artifacts: 25-04, 29-05, 30-14, 31-16, 31-17, 33-02, 33-03, 33-07.
Paper Archives: 25-04, 29-05, 30-14, 31-16, 33-02, 33-03, 33-07.

Publications: James H. Gunnerson, The Fremont Culture. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 59, no. 2, 1969. Noel Morss, The Ancient Culture of the Fremont River in Utah. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 12, no. 3, 1931. Noel Morss, Clay Figurines of the American Southwest. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 49, no. 1, 1954.

Intellectual precedent for the Claflin-Emerson Expedition was set by F. C. Putnam, C. C. Parry, and Edward Palmer.

Artifacts: 75-19, 77-23, 77-36.

Paper Archives: 77-23, 77-36.

From 1928–1931 separate expedition parties led by Noel Morss, Henry Roberts, and Donald C. Scott visited Northeastern Utah to further define the Fremont culture (A.D. 950-1200) by incorporating new archaeological evidence with existing theories about the growth and decline of the people. Two boxes of prints and negatives, mainly from 1929–1931, contain images of camps, pictographs, and various excavations of pit and surface structures at sites including Barrier, Talus, Hill Creek, and Nine Mile Canyons. An annotated album of photographs "as seen through the camera of Dave Rust, packer, guide, and friend to the expedition," captures spontaneous images along the route to various sites: pack trains walking along treacherous paths, people climbing rock walls, and camp site amicability reveal the physical demands as well as the more relaxed moments of field research.

Donald C. Scott Collection of Petroglyphs and Pictographs

Inventory No. 10-70:1-11
Accession No. 971-21
Date: 1925–1967
Photographers: Frank Beckwith, Charles B. Boogher, David Breternitz, Dean Brimhall, David DeHarport, David S. Dibble, M. R. Harrington, Lewis B. Jones, A. V. Kidder, Noel Morss, Jesse Nusbaum, Albert B. Reagan, Louis Schellbach, Donald C. Scott, C. Sharp, Julian Steward, Leo C. Thorne, and others
Collector: Donald C. Scott (1879-1967)

Inventory No. 10-67
Accession No. 971-21
Date: 1929-1931
Photographers: Leo C. Thorne and unknown
Collector: Ann Morris

Inventory No. 10-76
Accession No. NA
Date: 1927-1931+
Photographers: Frank Beckwith, Charles B. Boogher, David Breternitz, Dean Brimhall, David DeHarport (1921- ), David S. Dibble, M. R. Harrington, Lewis B. Jones, A. V. Kidder, Noel Morss, Jesse Nusbaum, Albert B. Reagan, Louis Schellbach, Donald C. Scott, C. Sharp, Julian Steward, Leo C. Thorne, and others
Collector: Donald C. Scott (1879-1967)

Related Collections:
Photographs: Inventory No. 10-5:1-7 includes prints and negatives from Awatovi, Jeddito Valley, and Canyon de Chelly in Northeastern Arizona. Inventory No. 10-50, Accession No. 989-28 is comprised of Salvatore Mancini prints depicting rock art from Horseshoe Canyon, Utah; Petrified Forest, Arizona; Los Alamos, Galisteo, Tenako, Three Rivers, Cook's Peak, and San Cristobal, New Mexico. A 1988 exhibition catalogue with an essay by Polly Schaafsma, "Terra Incognita," accompanies the collection. Inventory No. 10-55. Many images were recorded when Donald C. Scott led the Claflin- Emerson Expedition to northeastern Utah for two seasons.
Paper Archives: 971-21.

Publication: Polly Schaafsma. Rock Art of Utah. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 65, 1971.

A vast number of photographs of petroglyphs and pictographs principally found in Southeastern Utah and Northwestern Arizona was assembled by Donald C. Scott from 1925-1967. Some were acquired while Scott led the Claflin-Emerson Expedition, others were derived from collectors including Ann Morris. A large number of the most detailed images were photographed by David DeHarport. Together, they form a comprehensive record of paintings and inscriptions from various locations, some of which are nearly inaccessible and others of which have subsequently been damaged. More than 100 petroglyph panels were documented from the Ashley and Dry Fork valleys alone. According to J. O. Brew, Scott thought the petroglyphs would provide "understanding of the social organization, ceremonies, and even personal behavior of their creators." Scott's collection formed the basis for Polly Schaafsma's analysis comparing stylistic features of rock art among the Fremont, Virgin Kayenta Region of the Anasazi, and Barrier Canyon cultures.

Southeastern Utah Expedition to Alkali Ridge

Inventory No. 10-56
Accession No. 990-7
Dates: 1931-1933, 1965
Photographers: Alden B. Stevens, 1932–1933, and others
Collector: J. O. Brew (1906–1988)

Related Collections:
Photographs: Inventory No. 10-5:1-7 has some prints and negatives of Alkali Ridge. Inventory No. 10-89 contains David DeHarport's photographs.
Artifacts: 33-07, 33-44, 990-07.
Paper Archives: 33-07, 33-44, 990-07.

Publications: John Otis Brew. Archaeology of Alkali Ridge, Southeastern Utah. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 21, 1946. Watson Smith. Painted Ceramics of the Western Mound. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 38, 1971.

Continuing the field surveys begun by J. W. Fewkes, S. J. Guernsey, A. V. Kidder, Jesse Nusbaum, and Neil Judd to a mesa known as Alkali Ridge, J. O. Brew led expeditions to the area with an assistant, J. A. Lancaster, in 1931, 1932, and 1933. Images are of general views of Alkali Ridge, ground plans, sites such as dwellings and storerooms, pottery, basketry, and stone implements. The stratigraphic techniques employed on the expedition describe the relationships between artifacts with architectural features from Basketmaker through Pueblo cultures. One envelope contains prints from the 1965 designation of Alkali Ridge as a National Historic Landmark.

Awatovi, Jeddito Valley, and Canyon de Chelly in Northeastern Arizona

Inventory No. 10-5:1-7
Accession Nos. 990-07, 995-11
Dates: 1899, 1900, 1923–1975
Photographers: Edward P. Beckwith, C. W. Carter, Harriet Cosgrove, David DeHarport, Fairchild Air Photos, Lowell G. Lurvey, Carlos Garcia Robiou, Frank Russell, Benjamin W. Smith, Spence Air Photos, Spinden (Brooklyn Museum), Alden B. Stevens, Helga Tiewes, Dick Wheeler, and various unknown
Collector: J. O. Brew (1906–1988)

Inventory No. 10-58
Accession No. NA
Date: 1937-1938
Photographers: Edward P. Beckwith and unknown
Collector: J. O. Brew (1906–1988)
Related Collection: Inventory No. 10:5, 6

Inventory No. 10-4
Accession No. NA
Photographer: Neil Judd (1887–1976)
Dates: 1929–1930s
Collector: NA

Related Collections:
Photographs: Inventory No. 10-56 contains some prints from Alkali Ridge. Inventory No. 10-89 is one box of prints and negatives of Pueblo II and early Pueblo IV pottery recovered from Awatovi and Jeddito Valley in 1935 and 1936 photographed by David DeHarport. Inventory No. 10-85:1-2 consists of serigraphs by Louie Ewing of kiva murals and views of excavations at Awatovi. Inventory No. 10-70:1-11, The Donald C. Scott Collection of Petroglyphs and Pictographs, includes some paintings found at Awatovi.
Artifacts: 35-85, 35-126, 36-131, 37-111, 38-120, 39-97, 43-16, 52-50, 63- 16, 990-7, 995-11, 996-26.
Paper Archives: 35-85, 35-121,35-126, 36-131, 36-131A, 37-111, 38-120, 39-97, 990-07, 995-11, 996-26.

Publications: Watson Smith, Painted Ceramics of the Western Mound at Awatovi. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 38, 1971. Watson Smith, Kiva Mural Decorations of Awatovi and Kwaika-a. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 37, 1952. Watson Smith, Prehistoric Kivas of Antelope Mesa. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 39, no. 1, 1972. James C. Gifford and Watson Smith, Gray Corrugated Pottery from Awatovi and other Jeddito sites in Northeastern Arizona. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 69, 1978.

The Peabody Museum expedition to Awatovi and other nearby sites took place from 1935 to 1939. Fieldwork was focused on Antelope Mesa at the Hopi Reservation. Overall, 1,500 rooms dating from the sixth to eighteenth centuries A. D. were uncovered. Masses of data, artifacts, and corresponding field photographs tie the history and life of the Pueblo to the modern Hopi; pottery designs and kiva murals disclosed information about social organization; extensive prehistoric coal mining operations and agricultural systems were mapped; an understanding of early Spanish contact with the Hopi was developed with the excavation of a seventeenth-century Franciscan mission, San Bernardino de Aguatobi, and stratigraphic tests showed architectural developments.

A group of aerial views by Beckwith, Fairchild, and Spence of the Awatovi camp and sites such as Keams and Tellahogan Canyons and the Western Mound show architectural details and crews at work. Hattie Cosgrove managed the pottery tent and became unofficial camp photographer. The large number of prints she made represent an unusually rich resource of scenes from everyday activities of the museum expedition crew, Hopi and their families, and visitors to Awatovi. Other prints attributed to Neil Judd are of Hopi gardens, a loom anchor, and children's small toy hogans and corrals which were found on a sand dune near Kokpnyama Ruin in Jeddito Valley.

Share this

Harvard University | Department of Anthropology | Human Evolutionary Biology
Privacy | Terms of Use | Site Map | Webmaster 
Calendar of Events

©2013 Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology
Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138

Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University

 


.